1992 Vol. 13, No. 4

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研究论文
The distribution and morphology of the A,B and D cells in toad pancreas were observed with immunohischemistry (PAP method,PAP-protein A goldsilver double staining) and electron microscopy.By PA-gold (PAG) method,the precise intracellular localization of insulin has been observed.The stereological algorthms for the conversion of the profile-size frequency distribution observed in histological section to the sphere-size frequency distribution in three-dimension space have been developed to a computer program and were applied to A,B cells in the pancreas.
From a comparison of the anatomic records of the spinal nerve plexuses in the three species of leaf monkeys with each other and other primates,we can draw the following conclusions.
The present paper is reported 14 species of Phytocoris Fallen collected from lnner Mongolia.They are belonging to two subgenus Phytocoris and Ktenocoris.Among them eight species are new to science and Ph.populi,Ph.issykensis,Ph.nowickyi,Ph.insignus and Ph.longipennis are the new record to China.All new species are re-examined by Dr.Kerzhner,I.M.(Zoological Institute of Leningrad,USSR).Excepting allotype and some paratypes of Ph.(K.)caraganae sp.n.are deposited in Zoological Institute of Leningrad.Other types are deposited in Biological Department of Inner Mongolia Teachers University.
This paper reports three new species of Formosatettix Tinkham from China.Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology,Shaanxi Normal University.
Two new species of the genus Melanesthes Lacord.1859 are described.They were collected from Tengger Desert and the Maowusu Desert in N.W.China.The type specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Ningxia Agricutural College.
The present paper deals with the characteristics of insect fauna in northwestern Yunnan province.The insect fauna may be divided into the following natural regions:1.Nujiang river district:The oriental species make up 47.9 per cent of the total,the palearctic orgion species 31.1 per cent and the endemic species 5.1 per cent.2.Lancang river district:The element of oriental region species is 38.5 per cent of the total,the palearctic region species 37.1 per cent and the endemic species 8.4%.3.Jinsha river district:The element of palearctic region predominates over that of oriental region.The oriental species occupy 33.7 per cent of the total,the palearctic region species 34.4% and the endemic species 16.6%.The insect fauna of the northwestern Yunnan region is abundant and strange,because the geomorphology and vegetation of this region are very complicated.The different climates,river system,soil and vegetation on different altitudes of the plateau exert strong influence on the insects in their breeding and multiplication.The insects of the northwestern Yunnan are distinctly distributed into 5 zones by vertical zonation.
The present paper deals with vertical distribution of Vespoidea and analeysis of the fauna in Yunnan.Yunnan plateau took shape through the ascent by the orogenic movement of the Tertiary and Quaternary period.The geographical,climate and vegetation of Yunnan are very complicatod.The different climates,soil and vegetation on different altitudes of the plateau exert strong influencee on the insects in their breeding and multiplication.The elevation and latitudes,in authors point of view,are important factor that affect the distribution of insects.Their distributions are related to elevation and latitudes-a flight of stairs from low to high.The more latitude is to the north,the more significantly vary the distribution of insects.On the basis of the distribution characterstics of insects,the physical geography,landform,climate and vegetation of the place,Yunnan plateau may be divided into 5 vertical zones:(1)Zone of the river valley and tropical rainforest and mousoon forest (76.4-1400 m),(2)Zone of mountainous region subtropical and evergreen deciduous leaves and broadleaf forest (1400-1900 m),(3)Zone of low mountain subtropical and evergreen broadleaf forest (1900-2300 m),(4)Zone of middle warm mountain and mixed forest (2300-2700 m),(5)Zone of subalpine coniferous forest (2700-3900 m).Among the 122 species of wasps collected,20 species (16.4%) belong to tropical species,and 86 species (70.5%) to subtropical species,and 9 species (7.4%) to palaearctic species,and the rest of the tolal number are transregional species (5.7%).On the basis of the results of our research,Yunnan should belong to the oriental region,86.9% of the vespoidea fauna in Yunnan region is oriental species.Only a very small part of the species are palaearctic and transregional.
Based on data collected in Fuxian Lake from November,1988 to March,1991,the habits in living spaces,feeding and breeding of Anabarilius grahami (Regan) have been described.From the view of organic evolution and geological development of the lake,the origin and evolution of these biological characters have been further discussed.The biological characters of A.grahami are closely correlated to its origination.It shares a most recent common ancestor with A.andersoni and A.qiluensis (Yang et al.,1987).Their common ancestor would be a streamlived and omnivorous fish because the primitive extant species of Anabarilius are all stream-dwellers.A.grahami is endemic to Fuxian Lake.Some biological characters are also closely correlated to the geological development of the lake.Fuxian Lake was formed in late Pliocene as the result of Fault depressions (Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology et al.,1989;Yang,1984).Since its formation,the lake has generally followed a deepening and oligotrophic development.It is the unique origination of A.grahami and the deepening,oligotrophic development of the lake that produced profound eftects on the biological characters of A.grahami.1.A.grahami prefers to breed at outlets of cave springs or hill springs and the substrate and water current in the breeding sites are similar to hill streams.This breeding habit is common to the primitive species of Anabarilius and is supposed to be descended from the common ancestor and therefore should be a primitive character.2.The larvas and adults of A.grahami occupy different living spaces.The larvas smaller than 30 mm SL occur in shallow coastal region and adults occur in middle and upper layers of open water.Similar habits are possessed by Barbodes fuxianensis,B.chonglingchungi and percocypris pingi regani which live in the same lake.According to the recapitulation rule,the habit of larvas is supposed to be a primitive biological character.3.A.grahami shares a close phylogenetic relationship with A.andersoni and A.qiluensis (Yang et al.,1987).All of them feed mainly on planktons.They have undergone differentiations in gill rakers.A.grahami have 31-39 gill rakers,length of gill rakers 46.7%-55.6% of gill filaments and having numerous secondary gill rakers.By contrast,A.andersoni and A.qiluensis have 21-25 and 22-25 gill rakers,length of gill rakers 30.0%-54.0% and 35.4%-45.1% of gill filaments,having less secondary gill rakers.Comparison indicates that A.grahami have evolved a most developed filtering organ in corresponding to the oligotrophic environment.4.A.grahami has habits of a long annual breeding season and a temporally regular interval between two sequent spawning populations.These habits had evolved to ensure enough food for the larvas and full use of the limited breeding sites as the result of adaptations to the deepening and oligotrophic development of the lake.5.A.grahami has lower absolute and relative fecundities than A.andersoni which is endemic to Xingyun Lake.Interspecific differentiations in fecundities were resulted from adaptations to different geological developments of Fuxian and Xingyun Lakes.Xingyun Lake followed generally a shallowing and eutrophic development in corresponding to which A.ander soni evolved higher fecundities.Howerver food shortage from deepening and oligotrophic development of Fuxian Lake had led to lowering of fecondities of A.grahami.6.Population of A.grahami has many more females than males,females being 4.1 times of males.Dominant females can ensure a potentially high fecundity for the population.
In thiopentone-anaesthetized and curarized cats we found that dorsal raphe (DR) stimulation could elicit long latency inhibitory,and in fewer cases,excitatory responses in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC),and the peripheral inputs elicited by passive forepaw flexion-extension movements may enhance or reduce the response of PCs to DR stimulation.The results suggest that the raphe-cerebellar serotonergic fiber may modulate PCs activity and interact with the peripheral input.
Using indirect immunofluorescent method,we have studied the localization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mouse fetus.Specific fluorescent was found on the cell membrane of various tissues at the different development stages of mouse fetus,such as the nasal mucous membrane epithelial cells in the 14.5th to 19th days,the glossal epithelial cells on day 16,the vascular epithelial cells of aorta descendens on day 18.5,the stomachal mucous membrane epithelium between the 17th and 18th days,the duodenal epithelial cells between days 17.5 and 18,the rectal mucous membrane epithelial cells and the vesical transitional epithelium between the 15.5th and 16th days and in the hepatic cells in the 14.5th to 19th days.EGFR positive cells were also observed in the anal tube,primodium of eye lid,adenohypophysial glandular epithelium,sublingual gland,adrenal medulla,ovarial medulla,submaxillary gland,glandula accessoria and pancreas islet cells.
Protargol staining technique and scanning electron microscopy are used to study the morphology of Oxytricha platystoma,and morphogenesis of the ventral ciliatures during asexual reproduction and physiological reorganization.During asexual reproduction,adoral zone of membranelles primordium (AZMP,future opisthe) occurs at first,then,undulating membrane primordium (UMP),frontal-ventral-transverse cirri primordia (FVTP) and left-& right marginal cirri primordia (LMP,RMP)(future proter and opisthe) appear in succession while old AZM renews.The result is that two sets of ventral ciliatures are developed and old ciliatures are disintegrated and disappeared.During physiological reorganization,AZMP,UMP,FVTP,LMP,and RMP formed in the same sequence as asexual reproduction.As a results,a set of ciliatures are produced and old ciliatures are replaced by the new ones.Because there are certain similar characters in the differentiation of new ciliatures and the degeneration of old ones,it is postulated that the regulation mechanism is same in occuring,developing and locating of the ciliary primordia for both the asexual reproduction and the physiological reorganization.
A proteolytic enzyme from the venom of Agkistrodon halys Pallas has been purified by ion-exchang chromatography and by gel-filtration.This proteolytic enzyme (called proteinase a) can hydrolyze casein.Using casein as the substrate,the optimum pH is about 9.5,the optimum temperature is about 45℃,and Km=1.33×10[-5] mol/L.Its activity toward casein was inhibited by EDTA.It did not act on TAME and BAEE.Proteinase a showed fibrinolytic activity in vitro,EDTA and cysteine could inhibite this activity.
1992, 13(4): 397-402.