1991 Vol. 12, No. 2

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研究论文
The present paper deals with the morphology of matured eggs and sperms,the surface structure and morphology of the chorion of eggs,the site and structure of micropyle,and the process of fertilization in Clarias lazera by SEM.The spermatozoon retains a primitive type,divided into head,middle and tail.The Chorion contains zona radiate and attachment disc.Attachment disc is only at the top of the egg.There is a single micropyle in the center of attachment disc.Only one sperm can pass it at a time.After fertilization,the micropyle appeared some secretion.The secretion sticks with the sperms that cant enter eggs to form mass which limited other sperms go into the egg.The process of fertilization is about 60 seconds.In this paper,the process of sperm enters into the egg of fish and a material of fertilizin was supposed to exit.The fertilizin in the micropyle,which may be from the dissolved micropylar cell,probably has function as attracting sperms.Besides,other questions were discussed.
There were several systematic studies of Rufous-headed Crowtit (Paradoxornis webbianus).One was undertaken by Deignan (1964),then by Traylor (1967) and recent one by Zheng Zuoxin (1984).Rufous-headed Crowtit have brown-winged and red-winged forms.The latter can farther be divided into ashy-throat and vinous-throated groups.So some ornithologists separated the birds into three species,other ornithologists incorporated all Rufous-headed Crowtits in one specied.The present paper studied geographical distribution,characteristics of skins and comparison of skull.Among red-winged forms,ashy-throated and vinous-throated group patterns connected by ganluoensis,a new subspecies was fund in Sichuan (Li Guiyuan and Zhang Qinmu 1980).Both the groups meet in Yunnan,Sichuan and Guizhou Provinces and intermediary individuls were fund in these areas.So ashy-throated and vinous-throated groups should not be separated into difference species.Brown winged and redwinged forms are isolated by geography.There are none of intermedium forms to be fund.The two groups have remarkable differenced in wing colour.There are also differnces in the shape of process of lachrymal and orbital process of quadrates between brown-winged and red-winged forms.It is considered that Rufous-headed Crowtits should be separated into Paradoxornis brunneus and Paradoxornis webbianus.The latter can be divided into subspecies groups.
This paper describes five new species of the genus Sophonia from Guizhou province,China.The type specimens are deposited in Guizhou Agricultural College.
The species of Microtermes Wasmann and Ancistrotermes Silvestri distribute in Ethiopian and Indomalayan regions.Considerating the zoogeographical origins,the authors deduce:the ancestral species of the above two genera distributed in the Gondwanaland,with the earth drift,some species were brought to the Ethiopian and Indomalayan regions,through the speciation,forming the contemporary distribution patterns.
The structures and morphometric comparisons of the pre-parasitic juveniles of the following Mermithidae (Nematoda) were studied:Romanomermis wuchangensis,Hexamermis albicans,Hexamermis agrotis,Hexamermis fengchengensis,Hexamermis sp.,and Amphimermis sp.Duncans new mutiplerangt test (P=0.05) was used to analyze the morphometric data of the juveniles.The results showed that there were some distinguished morphological differences among genera and that morphometric comparisons among species in the same genus differed significantly.The possibility of pre-parasitic juveniles be used for the identification of genera and species,the method of taxonomy and the main values of diagnosis were preliminarily studied in this thesis.
A total of 208 herbivorous animals belonging to 7 species and 3 groups of mammals (Lagomopha,Rodentia and Ruminantia) were examined by autopsy and 8 species of cestodes belonging to 5 genera of Anoplocephalidae were found in northwest highland area of Sichuan Province.Four species of anoplocephalid cestodes,Paranoplocephala ryjikovi,P.transversaria,Aprostatandrya macrocephala and Diuterinotaenia daofuensis sp.n.are reported from marmots,Marmota himalayana;vole,Eothenomys melanogaster and pikas,Ochotona curzoniae,respectively,in this paper.Diuterinotaenia daofuensis sp,n.is distinguished from other species in the same genus by the arrangement of testes and the position of uteri.
The studies on the reproduction ecology of Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae),as a part of a five-year (1984-1988) project of the behavioural ecology of the species,have been carried out at Heimahe area during from 1985-1988.The area we surveyed is near southwestern border of Qinghai Lake,Qinghai Province.The results of our investigations are briefly mentioned as follows:The beginning and ending of breeding period as well as the number of the pregnant time on Plateau pika usually varies with years according to our firsthand observations.From an analysis of the data on reproduction,it may be seen that the breeding population are composed mostly of the first and second litter of pikas born in the preceding year,occupying 57.14% and 25.71% respectively of the total number of the breeding population,while the remaining 17.15% consists of the third litter of pikas and old individuals.The range of the litter size of Plateau pika varies from one to eight young at a time,averaging 4.52±0.12.Usually three litters are produced by a female during one year,sometimes female can give birth to four or five litters.All the adult females are found to take part in reproduction.Altogether 2-29 young may be born in the females all life.The gestation period of the species is usually 22.2±0.13 days on an average.The suckling period in burrows where females breast-feed their young is 11.65±0.01 days based on our observations in the field.Only a few of first litter of young born in the present year,have been found to reach sexual maturation during summer.However,there are indications that the period of sex maturity of the females is earlier than that of the males (36.8±3.05 days as against 39.6±2.6 days on average).
Yellow-throated Buntings song had been recorded in breeding season.We made out the spectral structure and sound spectrum.The range of songs frequency is about 2.4-6.0 KHz,13-28 syllable and lasting 2.2-4.0 seconds.The sound spectrums are similar but there are some differences in each other.The field experiments show:Yellow-throated Bunting has the ability to recognize the song of neighbors and strangers,and has the ability to memorize and locate the sound.
This study was mostly for Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rainforests which disturbed by both deforestation and hunting.Some big tree dieback are due to trunk damaged.One apparent result of environmental change is that numbers of species and individuals of dirds are reduced dramatically.Many of these birds are trunk specialists which can forage pests in trunks,such as woodpeckers could have played a part in controlling trunk damaged.The progression of some tree dieback is associated with a progressive loss of birds both of species and individuals and trunk pests ramped.Many of big birds are suffering badly from hunting,however,the litte birds that mostly insectivorous are fortunate.A wide range of foliage insects are eaten by these birds,so that Xishuangbanna seasonal rainforests did not happen serious defoliation damage by insects.Levels of herbivory,judged from the proportion of areas of leaves in litterfall eaten by invertebrates was 16.4% which was as high as those in other tropical forests.Birds thus have the potential to influence insect population,and management to overcome tree dieback should provide habitat for birds,do not continually deforest,and we should pay more a attention to protect birds from hunting in Xishuangbann.
We measured the consumption of oxygen and the accumulation of energy in fat and tissues of nestling Long-billed Calandra Larks (Melanocorypha maxima) at Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem,Academia Sinica,from April,1987 to July,1988.Seventy-seven of nestling Long-billed Calandra Larks are used to carcass analysis,one hundred four of them are used to determination of oxygen consumption.From data on oxygen consumption of individual nestling in metabolism chambers at 35 ℃,we calculated that a neonate metabolized 452.05 KJ of energy during the twelve days.Applying standard conversion factors,we determined that a nestling accumulated 126.54 and 148.20 KJ of energy in lipid and nonlipid dry matter,respectively,for a total production of 365.40 KJ.From our analysis using data obtained in the laboratory,total energy expenditure for growth equaled 726.79 KJ,50.28% of them used to production,49.72% of them are used to maintenance.Analysis are shown that the patterns of daily change in growth energy for Long-billed Calandra Lark and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichdensis) are the same,but the pattern of distributed energy are different.Accumulated amount of nonlipid dry matter in tissues of nestling Savannah Sparrows are higher than Long-billed Calandra larks,but their lipid accumulation are lower than the latter when fledging.Ratio of energy expenditure for maintenance in Savannah Sparrows are higher than Long-billed Calandra Larks during growth.
The biochemical compositions in serum of "allogynogenetic" Qihe crucian carp and its parents were determined using Beckman Model 42 Clinical Biochemical Analyzer,including Total protein (TP),Albumin (Alb),Blood urea nitrogen (BUN),Blood sugar (BS),Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),Alkaline phosphatase (ALP),Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and Hydroxbutyrate dehydrogenase (HbDH).Significance of difference of data were determined by T-test.The results show that there is no significant difference between "allogynogenetic" Qihe crucian carp and its female parent,while there is significant difference between "allogynogenetic" Qihe crucian carp and its male parent.It is demonstrated from the metabolical aspect that the allogenic sperm only makes the stimulation effect,but no biological effect for progeny of gynogenesis.It is concluded that gynogenesis here accords with the traditional concept.
The measurement of standing crops of various elements is first step toward understanding mineral cycling in ecological systems.At the same time,it is very important to investigate the atomic ratios when studying the relationshops between various elements and ultimately,the transfer coefficients between different compartments of certain system.
This paper dealt with LDH isozymes of heart,liver,kidney of amphibians:Tylototriton asperrimus,Megophrys spinatus,Rana margaratae and Microhyla heymonsi by using polyacrylamide gel egectrophoresis and optical density scanning.There were different type LDH isozymes in each tissues of all animals.The results indicated that LDH isozymes had tissue specificity and different LDH zymograms in each tissue of the animals.Animals may be identified by special zymograms.The LDH molecule evolution and LDH relationship with systematics were discussed too.
A new fibrinogenase (EC 3.4.21.5) was isolated and purified from the venom of Chinese habu snake (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus) by DEAE-SephadexA-50,DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B,MonoQ (FPLC) cclumn chromatography.It showed a single protein band both in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel egectrophoresis and alkaline polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.The molecular weight was estimated to be 26000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.The isoelectric point was found to be Ph 4.7.It was a glycoprotein containing 6.4% carbohydrate with 0.3% neutral sugar,1.2% sialic acid,4.9% hexosamine.It was composed of about 178 amino acid residues and rich in glycine and aspartic acid.The fibrinogenase of the venom of T.mucrosquamatus TWVFg was heat stable but labile to acid.Its extinction coefficient (1 mg/ml) at 280 nm was 1.558.Purified TMVFg had strong arginine esterase activity;the Km to benzoylarginiue ethylester (BAEE) was 1.4×10[-3]M.The enzyme activity could be inhibited by pheny.Imethanesulfonyfluoride (PMSF);but was not affected by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA).TMVFg had fibrinogenolytic activity;electrophoresis of fibrinogen degraded with TMVFg revealed the rapid disappearance of the α (alpha) and β (beta)-chains and the appearance of lower molecular weight frag ments.TMVFg did not cause fibrinogen solution clotting,nor coagulating plasma and showed neither hemorrhagic activity nor proteolytic activity toward casein.TMVFg had activating fibrinolytic activity.
Mitochondrial DNA from giant panda has been digested with nine enzymes:BamHⅠ,BglⅠ,BglⅡ,EcoRⅠ,EcoRⅤ,PstⅠ,PvuⅡ,SalⅠ and XhoⅠ,and the molecular weights of the fragments have been determinde.BamHⅠ,EcoRⅠ,EcoRⅤ and XhoⅠ cleave giant panda mtDNA at three pointes yielding three fragments,respectively.Digestion with PstⅠ and PvuⅡ produces two fragments,rerpectiuely.Cleavage with BglⅠ,BglⅡ and SalⅠ generates one fragment,respectively.Based on analysis of a set of fragments generated by single and double-digestions with these restriction endonucleases,BamHⅠ,PstⅠ,EcoRⅤ and PvuⅡ cleavage sites were located on the map with EcoRⅠ sites as reference points.The molecular size of mtDNA from giant panda is about 16.4 Kb.The distribution of cleavage sites on mtDNA is not random.Our preliminary results may be useful for the evolutionary study of mtDNA from giant panda.
The karyotypes of 10 species in Sylviinae and 4 species in Muscicapinae were studied with colchicine-hypotonic-air drying technique from bone marrow cells.The flycatchers had the subtelocentric or telocentric Z chromosome,which showed that their karyotypes were primitive than Warblers.Goldcrest had more metacentrics,which showed their karyotypes were specialized than Warblers.Sibley et al.(1988) had placed these three groups into different families by DNA-DNA hybridization data,the karyotype data seem supporting this classification.
1991, 12(2): 221-225.