1990 Vol. 11, No. 1
These studies present a approach to analysis of micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (ONA) in erythrocytes of toad (Bufo bufo andrewsi) tadpoles,induced by exposure to polluted water of Daguan River.Tadpoles were exposed to polluted water of three different concentration (33.3% 50.0% and 100.0%) for 7 days.In the control,total frequency of nuclear anomalies (including micronuclei) was 4.1‰;Total frequencies of ONA for the above mentioned experiment groups were 8.1‰,10.8‰ and 15.8‰ respectively.The frequencies of MN and ONA in erythrocytes of tadpole,in various groups,showed distinct dose dependent increases.Our results shown that MN and ONA in erythrocytes of toad tadpole is useful index for detecting genotoxic compounds in the aquatic environment.
1990, 11(1): 7-16.
Chinese salamanders of the Family Salamandridae have evolved a remarkable diversity of characteristics which protect them from predators.These characters are associated with the presence of powerful skin toxins.The distribution of antipredator mechanisms in the family is presented in Table 1,and photographs illustrate the antipredator behaviors.It is very important to use the established definitions and terms associated with the different antipredator behaviors.Most salamanders of the family Salamadridae exhibit bright ventral color patterns which serve to warn predators of the presence of distasteful skin secretions.Some species such as Cynops cyanura and Paramesotriton chinensis even roll onto their backs to exhibit the ventral coloration.
Microscopic structure of ovary and follicular development in wild adult tree shrews from Kunming,Yunnan were observed at different seasons.Interstitial gland tissues are rare,but medullar cords of "testis cord" type are commonly present in ovaries of this species.Follicle development appears to be similar to typical pattern of mammals.Nearly ripe follicles have rather larger follicular antra and thinner theca interna interrupting zone of thecal gland cells.The mature corpus luteum in pregnancy cycle is considerably big and there is an extremely small connective tissue center.Large polyhedral luteal cells with round nuclei accumulate abundant lipid droplets in cytoplasm.Accessory corpus luteum (ACL) structure with degenerative zona pellucida is seen in some animals,and some of ACL are present with gravid corpus luteum.Development of secondary follicles and medium-sized vesicular follicles seem to be no seasonal differences,but development of larger vesicular follicles and nearly ripe follicles occurs obviously in Jan and Apr.It is possible that there are more ovarian cycles of follicular prophase and follicular phase in these groups.Corpus luteum of pregnancy cycle and ACL are seen in Jul.No structure of pregnancy cyclic ovary is discovered in Oct,and there are more inactive ovaries which have almost no development of actively growing larger vesicular follicles in this group.These results suggest that seasonal changes in ovarian activity appear in this species.The earliest onset of estrus may begin in Jan.It is fully non-breeding season in Oct.The seasonal disruption of ovarian cycle may be controlled by some of the environmental and endocrine factors.
The diploid chromosome number of L.ridibundus is determined to be 68 or so.Most of the macrochromosomes show a prominent centromeric C-band.The Z chromosome has a small,indistinct C-band,while the W chromosome is almost C-positive.The Ag-NORs are detected on 2 pairs of microchromosomes.
1990, 11(1): 29-33.
This paper first reports the studies on karyotype and G-banding of the chromosome in Hypoaspis lubrica.The results showed that H.lubrica had 7 (male) and 14 (Female) chromosomes,and indicated a haplodiploidy sex determination system.H.lubrica did not show any constriction in karyotype analysis.There were 28 to 30 bands in haploid set of full metaphase by G-banding analysis.This paper first provided a useful method,modified air-drying technique,for studing chromosomes of gamasid mites.
The present paper mainly deals with the scales surface structures of 5 species of Cyprinus in Qilu Lake by means of scanning clectron microscopy.The scales of other genera of subfamily Cyprininae are observed in the same time.It is described in detail that morphological characters of the scales including circuli,focus and radii.Denticular knobbles on the circuli are only found in chilia among 5 species of Cyprinus.They are aleo found in carassioides cantonensis and Carassius auratus.The former studies were showed that Carassioides and Carassius were the advanced group in Cyprininae.Based on above facts,it is inferred that denticular knobbles,are derived from normal circuli.Scales with denticular knobbles,or without them are a good diagnostic character for taxonomic identification.Cyprinus carpio chilia and Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus were seen as different subspecies.Now authors are inclined that Cyprinus carpio chilia is deserved the statu of species instead of subspecies according the evidences that scale of chilia is with denticular knobbles and rubrofuscus without them,that skull of rubrofuscus is with fontanelle and chilias without it.Depending on ultrastructure of radii,it is deduced that radii may act on two aspects.One is that it may regulate expansion or contraction of scales because of fluctuation of surrounding water temperature.The other is that it may strengthen flexibility of scales.
The Willis Circles in 25 tree shrews were studied.Latex mixed with China ink was injected into the ascending aorta of all animls.Under the anatomical microscope,the main branches of the Circles were observed and measured.There is a complete Willis Gircle in most of the animals (88%).The anterior cerebral artery of each side sends off a median branch,and both branches form a common anterior cerebral artery.These two branches may be called anterior communicating arteres.In addition,right and left posterior communicating arteries communicate internal carotid arteries and posterior cerebral arteries which come from basilar artery.The calibre of anterior and posterior communicating arteries are sufficiently enough,therefore if one wants to make a whole cerebral ischemia of tree shrew one has to ligate all the four arteries,I.e.,the right and left common carotid and vertebral arteries.
1990, 11(1): 46-46.
1990, 11(1): 47-53.
This paper reports a new species of the genus Muntiacus,according to 1 old adult male,1 younger adult female,1 infancy female and 3 skins collected from Gaoligong and Biluo Mountain,north-western Yunnan China.The type specimens and examined specimens are deposited in Kunming Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica,Kunming.
The present paper deals with eleven new species of the subfamily Tachydrominae from Yunnan Province.The type specimens are kept in the Insect Collections of Beijing Agricultural University.
1990, 11(1): 73-82.
From the analysis between tooth and body size in Rhinopithecus some aspects were shown,in males there are higher correlation coefficients both in linear or area versus cranial length than in females.On M/D direction,the higher positive allometry,being significantly bigger than females,exist in males.In the maxilla both male and female show stronger correlation with the cranial length than they do in the mandible.The extensive incisal prior to mastication are not necessary for th foods,and the large body size have relatively larger canine with a proportional molar size and dental arch area.Maxillar dental crown area or dental arch area gives a better estimate of maximus grinding space.In Rhinopithecus the relationship between the dentition and body size is closer to Gorilla,Colobus,and Macaca,then to Pan and Homo.
scanning electron microscopy of the antennae of the Yulong ghost moths Hepialus yulongensis was observed.The form of the antennae,the sensillar types,and distribution of the various sensilla were examined.The antennae of Hepialus is filiform with scape,pedicel and 21-27 flagellar segments.The antennae of both sexes are of 2.3-2.7 mm length.The scape is longer than the following segments.The cuticle of the antenna lacks the reticulation of raised ridges.Six types of sensilla found on the antennae of both male and female include sensilla trichodea,sensilla chaetica,sensilla coeloconica,sensilla basiconica,sensilla squamiformia and Bǒhms bristles.Moreover,sensilla campaniform occur on the antennae of male moths.The sensilla trichodea are further subdivided into two types (designated A and B).Bǒhms bristles occur mainly on the scape,pedicel,and apical segment.The gradual increase in the number of sensillum coeloconicum along the base of flagellar segments and the decrease near the tip.There are two morphological types of the sensilla coeloconica include the center peg of long and short pattern.The sensilla coeloconica of both types lack the inward slanting fringe pegs in the depressed periphery.
Two thrombin-like enzymes (principle Ⅰ and principle Ⅱ) had been purified from the venom of Trimeresurus stejnegeri by CM-Sephadex C-25,DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography.Principle Ⅰ showed one band and principle Ⅱ two bands on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.We had identified the two bands of principle Ⅱ both were thrombin-like enzymes by the method of cutting polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.Principle Ⅰ has a molecular weight of 54,500,contains approximately 261 amino acid residues and has a relatively high content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid,contains 14% neutral hexose,13.1% hexosamine and 14.7% sialic acid,the isoelectric point is 3.5,the extinction coefficient at 280 nm for a 0.1% solution is 0.855.Principle Ⅱ has molecular weights of 54,000 and 47,000 respectively as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,principle Ⅱ is also a glycoprotein as showed by Schiffs stain.