1991 Vol. 12, No. 3
Postnatal Growth of the Skeletal System of Lady Amherst's Pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) in Captivity )
1991, 12(3): 227-234.
With the method developed by Dingerkus and Uhler (1977) the author prepared 30 skeletal specimens of the Lady Amhersts Pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) chick at different age.In this paper the author discribed the skeletal postnatal growth and fusion from 1 to 143 day old;reported some bones growth equations from 1 to 41 day old,and discussed significance of the growth modes to chicks survival.Fig.1,2,3,4,5,6,7 show the process of ossification and fusion of the bones of skull,mandible,sternum,pelvic girdle,pygostyle,carpus bones and metacarpals,tibia and metatarsals with tarsals from 1 to 143 day old.From 1 to 41 day old,the growth modles of all bones which were measured are Y=a+bx (parameters a,b see table 1),while the growth equations of body weight are:♂Y=3.1267+0.0096x2;♀:Y=4.0692+0.0109x2.The seqence of development and growth is:in the peroid of hatching the brain and feeding structure (premaxilla,maxilla and mandible etc.) develop most completely in all bones which were measured,the lower limb develop more completely than upper limb;in the 41 day postnatal growth,the growth rate of upper limb is the fastest in all bones which were measured,but the growth rate of body weight is not constant,the older the chicks are,the faster the body weights grow.
1991, 12(3): 235-240.
The paper gave a view of classification and geographical distribution for the fresh-water sponges (Spongillidae) from China.Though 26 species and varieties in 5 genera have been recorded,they are only a very small portion of the fresh-water sponges in China.It is clear that an instensive study of the fresh-water sponges in our country should be made.Their geographical distributions are from 100°23′ to 124°0′ east longitude and from 23°1′ to 35°0′ north latitude.This paper dealt with the descriptions of 3 new species in the genera Spongilla and Trochospongilla from China.They are S.jiujiangensis sp.nov.,S.chaohuensis sp.nov.and T.tsingpuensis sp.nov.
1991, 12(3): 241-247.
This paper reports the taxonomic revision and distribution of subspecies of rhesus monkey (M.mulatta) in China,based on the comparison of external and cranial characters,The rhesus monkey in China could be divided into six subspecies:M.m.mulatta,M.m.brevicaudus,M.m.littoralis,M.m.lasiotis,and M.m.vestita are valid subspecies,M.m.tcheliensis is probably a valid subspecies,too.The distribution is that (Fig.1):M.m.mulatta in the west,middle,south of Yunnan and southwest of Guangxi.M.m.brevicaudus in the Hainn Island and Wanshan Islands in Guangdong,and the islands near Hong Kong.M.m.littoralis in Fujian,Zhejiang,Anhui,Jiangxi,Hunan,Hubei,Guizhou,northwest of Gnangdong,north of Guangxi,northeast of Yunnan,east ofsichuan and south of Shaanxi.M.m.lasiotis in the west of Sichuan,northwest of Yunnan,southeast of Qinghai (Banma) M.m.vestita in the southeast of Thibet,northwest of Yunnan (Deqing),and perhaps including Yushu (Qinghai),M.m.tcheliensis in north of Henan,south of Shanxi and near Beijing.
New Discovery of Second Reproduction Base of the Short-Billed Guillemot (Synthliboramphus antiquus) in China
1991, 12(3): 248-276.
1991, 12(3): 249-252.
This paper describes three new species of the subfamily Pseudophyllinae,respectively comme under the Phyllomimus Stal 1875,Phyllozelus Pictet & Saussure 1892 and Tegrolcinia De Jong 1938.All the type specimens are preserved in the collections of Shanghai Institute of Entomology,Academia Sinica.
1991, 12(3): 253-258.
According to the variation of pregnancy rate,different types of placental scar rate and juvenile rate,we developed a method to estimate the reproductive parameters of rodents such as reproductive delay (the average time for littered female to litter again),juvenile maturing time (the average time for juvenile to litter after born),reproductive deviation and so on.The estimation results about C.triton in Raoyang county of Hebei,China in 1986 are as follows:During the breeding seasons from March to September,the overwintered females,juveniles in April and May,juveniles in June and July,and juveniles in September litter respectively 3,2,1,and o times.The first littering pattern of overwintered females is a normal distribution,the average date of littering is April 20 and standard deviation is 13.4 days,The litter size is 9.1260(±2.5971).The sex ratio (female:male) is 1∶1.4926.The reproductive delay is 59 days.The juvenile maturing time is 62 days.The average time for juvenile to be trapped by wooden traps is 24 days.
1991, 12(3): 259-264.
This work deals with the feeding behavior of Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola fytchii fytchii) in captivity from Feb.-June,1989.Their daily feeding activities occur all day,but there are two peaks of feeding one day,one is from 7 AM to 11 AM,the other is from 5 to 7 PM.In later one,the highest peak appears from 5-6 PM.The daily feeding activities are related to temperature,humidity and illumination.When it is clouded,raining or cold birds start to feed obviously late.The frequence of feeding activity decrease when luminance is strong and temperature is high at noon of sunny day.The statistics analysis of attacking index shows that there is a peck order in the group of one male and three females.The social hierarchy is corresponded with the peck order,the male is the first,three femals are separatly the second,third and fouth.The feeding order in a food trough is the same as the peck order.and the amount of time spending in feeding is no remarkable difference with the feeding order.It has been estimated that the reason is that the food is available enough to all birds in captivity.The results of regression analysis indicate:The time which the birds spend in countship feeding is related positivly to the total time of birds spending on the ground,the time of preening and other countship behaviors,and is related negativly to the time which the birds spend in attackig.The main factors which affect the daily feeding activities of Bamboo Partridge are the total time birds spending on the ground,the time of resting,walking and drinking.The longer time the Bamboo Partridge spends on the ground,the more time the birds spend in feeding.This sltuation corrosponds to the ecological habits that Bamboo Partridge feeds mainly on the ground.
1991, 12(3): 265-270.
The studies are based upon the samples of five-toet jerboa (Allactaga sibirica) collected from Huhohoat district from March to October 1980 and 1987.A total number of 556 specimes were collected,among which 324 were males and 232 females.With the lens weight of five-toet jerboa as the age criteria,7 age groups were recognized.The standerds of these age groups were listed below:Group 1 juvenile:The lens weight was less than 55.00 mg.Group 2 Subadult:The lens weight was 55.01-77.50 mg.Group 3 Adult (Ⅰ):The lens weight was 55.01-87.50 mg.Group 4 Adult (Ⅱ):The lens weight was 87.51-102.50 mg.Group 5 Adult (Ⅲ):The lens weight was 102.51-117.50 mg.Group 6 Adult (Ⅳ):The lens weight was 117.51-130.00 mg.Group 7 Senil:The lens weight was more than 130.00 mg.The subadults were born from June to October this year.The adults (Ⅰ) were collected before June or the breeding was collected after June.This paper shows that body weight,body length and tail length are not suitable for the age indicators of five-toet jerboa.Five-toet jerboa is an animal in hibernal sleep,that is from October to March of next year.Before June the collected specimens all were born in the last year and two years ago.The greater part of five-toet jerboa breed one time in the year.In this year the born juveniles and subadults appeared in July,August and September.The specimens of the adult (Ⅰ-Ⅳ) and the older were collected in June,that were born in last year,the year before last year,two,three and four years ago respectivelly,so to the five-toet jerboa can live five years old,but the most of them only live two to four years.
1991, 12(3): 271-276.
In this paper the rate of the eclosion,coiparity,oviparity,and incubation of the ghost moth,Hepialus deqinensis Liang,under different conditions of temperature (13℃,15℃,18℃,20℃,23℃),relative humidity (90%,95%,100%) and the rate of water content in the soil (20%,25%,35%,39%,40%) are reported.The results are summarized as follows:Temperature and relative humidity are both relatively important factors which effected the reproductive capacity of Hepialus deqinensis The optimal tempeerture is in a range from 15℃ to 18℃,and the rate of water content in soil is 25% to 30%,relative humidity is in a range from 70.0% to 100%.Only this way Hepialus deqinesis can be obtained by artificial rearing.The rate of eclosion is 95%-100%,copulation is 18%-30%,incubation is 88.6%-99.7%,and 43.2 to 63.6 eggs of each moth would be received.
Effect of Purified Fibrinogenase From the Venom of The Chinese Habu Snake (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus) on Fibrinogen and Thrombin
1991, 12(3): 277-283.
The fibrinogenase of T.mucrosquamatus venom (TMVFg) could hydrolyze the tripeptide Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-PNA,but it showed low enzymatic activity toward Cbz-Gly-Pro-Arg-PNA which was a good substrate of thrombin.TMVFg apparently prolonged plasma thrombin time,plasma recalcification time and fibrinogen solution thrombin time.By using MonoQ ion-exchange chromatography (EPLC),fibrinogen products degraded with TMVFg were isolated.One,designated as FDP Ⅰ,inhibited fibrin clot formation,Another one,designated as FDP Ⅱ,not only enhanced the fibrin clot but also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by TMVA (a platelet aggregation inducer isolated from the venom of T.mucrosquamatus) and this inhibitory effect was dose dependent.FDP Ⅱ had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or by arachidonic acid (AA).The results also showed that TMVFg had certain inhibitory effect on thrombin activities.
1991, 12(3): 284-292.
The learning-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA region of the young and aged rats all was changed obviously during the establishment,extinction and re-establishment of conditioned drink response.The velocity of establishment and development of the learning-dependent LTP in CA of the young rats is more than that of the aged rats.However there was nonsignificant differnece in the extinction of the learning-dependent LTP in CA of the young and the aged rats.These results not only showed that there was the age characteristics of the learning-dependent LTP in the CA region but also provided a evidence that the learning-dependent LTP might be one of the neural bases of learning and memory.
Distribution of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Immunostaining Cells in Digestive Tracts of Different kind Vertebrates
1991, 12(3): 293-298.
The distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) immunostaining cells in digestive tracts of vertebrates containing Ophiocephalus argus,Bufo bufo gargarizans,Clemmys mutica,Melopsittacus undulatus and Mus musculus albula were studied by peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method.The immunostaining cells were localized in the gastrointestinal tracts of above animal (except the gaster of Melopsittacus undulatus,the intestine and the cardia of gaster of Ophiocephalus argus).It first were localized in the esophagus of Clemmys mutica and B.b.gargarizans.Generally,the density of 5-HT immunostaining cells in the gastrointestinal tracts were the highest in the gasters and moderate in the duodenum and the large intestine,and the lowest in small intestine.The 5-HT immunostaining cells were visualized to distribute between the epithelum cells of the mucosa or gland.The positive cells usually had one or more processes which contained 5-HT immunostaining substance.Some processes were reached into lumen surface of the gland or intestine.Some were extended between other epithelum cells or even reached into lamina propria through the basal membrane.These results indicate that the 5-HT immunostaining cells in digestive tracts could release 5-HT by both endocrine and exocrine ways.
Studies on The Mitotic Chromosomes and Meiotic Synaptonemal Complexes (SC) of Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla)
1991, 12(3): 299-304.
A new karyotype of Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) was studied by C-banding,silver staining and analysis of synaptonemal complexes of spermatocytes.The karyotype reported in this paper is characterized by a diploid chromosome number of 40,with constitutive heterochromatin on centrimeric,distal and interstitial regions of chromosomes.Ag-NORs,with different activities in cells,were found to be located on chromosomes 18 and 19 respectively.Observations on synaptonemal complex show that the pairing between some areas on X chromosome and Y chromosome,forming loops along the X.Y axes,is later than others,which may imply the existence of nonhomologous pairing and synaptic adjustment in the pairing of sex chromosome of Chinese pangolin.Based on the comparative studies of on karyotype of the same species in literature and our observations on chromosomes of Chinese pagolin (M.pentadactyla),the chromosome polymorphism and possibile mechanism of the karyotypic evolution of M.pentadactyla are also discussed.
Analysis of Synaptonemal Complexes in Spermatocytes of the Hybrid F1 Between Swamp and Murrah Buffalo
1991, 12(3): 305-308.
The diploid chromosome number of hybrid F1 between Swamp and Murrah buffalo is 49.It is known that the chromosomal banding pattern of the two forms of buffalo are quite similar.No.1 chromosome of Swamp may result from a telomere-centromere tandem translocation between No.4 and No.9 chromosomes in the Murrah karyotype.In order to confirm this explanation the synaptonemal complex in spermatocytes of F1 hybrid has been examined by electron microscopy.At pachytene,22 autosomal SCs,an metacentric/submetacentric/telocentric trivalent and an XY pair were observed.Our results indicate that No.1 chromosome of Murrah could be result of a tandem translocation.There is high chromosomal homology betweem the two buffalos.
Micronuclei of Rat Bone Marrow Cells and Lung Macrophages Induced by Five Kinds of Yunnan Tin Ore Powder and Four Kinds of Metallic Compound
1991, 12(3): 309-314.
This paper emphasizes on the correlation between the highoccurring occupational lung cancer and potential mutagenicity of five kinds of Yunnan tin ore powder and four kinds of metallic compound.After treatment of rats by administration through trachea with these ore powder and compounds,the cytological preparations are made at various intervals for observing the effects of these ore powder and metallic compound on the frequencies of micronucleus and karyorrhexis of rat bone marrow cells and lung macrophages.The results are as following:1.All the ore powder and two kinds of metallic compound SnO and FeO can induce micronuclei and karyorrhexis in bone marrow cells.On first and 10th day,the frequency of karyorrhexis is higher than that of micronuclei and differs significantly from that of the control and vice versa on 20th and 30th day.2.All of the ore powder and metallic compound can also induce micronuclei and karyorrhexis in lung macrophages,and on 10th and 20th day,the frequency of karyorrhexis is as the same as that in bone marrow cells.
1991, 12(3): 315-318.
We describe a new feasible chromosome procedure detailed as follows:1.Take out of the femur or tibia from birds and small mammals,and sternum or rib from large mammals.2.Scissor it carefully and treat for 50 minutes with hypotonic solution.3.Squeeze it,and fix with Carnoys solution.4.Prepare the slide by air-drying method.We have obtained quite a few good chromosome specimens by this procedure.About 66% of the birds and almost all of the mammals chromosome prepartions are succeed in our experiments by this technique.Using this method we can begin cytogenetic works in some poor conditions e.g.when centrifuge or electricity is not available.This technique may be employed in some special research programs as well as in field investigations.