Yanfeng ZHANG, Yingping XIE, Jiaoliang XUE, Xiaohong FU, Weimin LIU. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Zoological Research, 2012, 33(E1-2): 13-17.
Citation: Yanfeng ZHANG, Yingping XIE, Jiaoliang XUE, Xiaohong FU, Weimin LIU. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Zoological Research, 2012, 33(E1-2): 13-17.

The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

Funds:  National Natural Science Foundation of China (31070584); Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province (2010011042-1; 2011021029-2
More Information
  • Author Bio:

    Yanfeng ZHANG

  • Corresponding author: Yingping XIE
  • Received Date: 2011-11-11
  • Rev Recd Date: 2012-04-29
  • Publish Date: 2012-06-05
  • Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers—the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane—and four sub-layers of the procuticle—the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.
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The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

Funds:  National Natural Science Foundation of China (31070584); Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province (2010011042-1; 2011021029-2
  • Author Bio:

  • Corresponding author: Yingping XIE

Abstract: Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers—the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane—and four sub-layers of the procuticle—the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

Yanfeng ZHANG, Yingping XIE, Jiaoliang XUE, Xiaohong FU, Weimin LIU. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Zoological Research, 2012, 33(E1-2): 13-17.
Citation: Yanfeng ZHANG, Yingping XIE, Jiaoliang XUE, Xiaohong FU, Weimin LIU. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Zoological Research, 2012, 33(E1-2): 13-17.
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