Mt. Gaoligongshan is located in northwest Yunnan province and is approximately 600 kilometres from the north to the south. It is higher in altitude in the north and lower in the south with about 4900 vertical metres difference in this region. According to its topography and climate, Mt. Gaoligongshan could be divided into southern, central and northern parts. Twenty-one pheasant species in this region were recorded using field investigation, interviews and literature checking. The pheasant diversity decreased with the rise in elevation, and also from the south to the north. There were only nine species above 2 500 m altitude and 12 species under 2 500 m. There were 13, 11 and 12 species respectively in the north, central and south areas. Habitat destruction and hunting are the main threats to the survival of pheasants in this region. For better protection for the pheasants in this region, we suggest strengthening habitat management and restoration, establishing habitat corridors, strengthening public environmental education and developing bird-watching tourism.