Fish Production, Water Quality and Bacteriological Parameters of Koi Carp Ponds Under Live-food and Manure Based Management Regimes
- Received Date: 2007-10-11
- Rev Recd Date: 1900-01-01
- Publish Date: 2008-04-22
Abstract: To test the effectiveness of introducing live zooplankton against direct manuring in ornamental fish ponds upon their survival and production, larvae of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were cultured for 11 weeks in earthen ponds maintained according to four management regimes: (1) live zooplankton fed to carp larvae (LF); (2) direct fertilization with poultry manure (PM); (3) direct fertilization with cowdung (CD); and (4) a control treatment (C). There were three replicates for each treatment. The growth of heterotrophic bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms like Aeromonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were also examined in response to pond management. Values of dissolved oxygen were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the water of LF ponds, compared to other treatments, while the PM and CD treatments recorded were significantly higher (P<0.05) values of PO4 – P, NH4 – N, NO3 – N, NO2 – N, specific conductivity, alkalinity, and BOD, compared to the LF and C treatments. The percentages of organic carbon and total nitrogen in the bottom sediments were higher in the PM and CD treatments compared to LF (P<0.05). Average counts of heterotrophic bacteria in the water of PM and CD ponds were significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05). The development of Aeromonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the PM and CD treatments. Weight gain of koi carp stocked in LF was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of fish in the other treatments. There was a significant difference in the survival rate of koi carp among the treatments ranging from 67.21% in C to 90.11% in LF. The results suggest that raising koi carp larvae in ponds and feeding them exogenously with zooplankton would support high rates of survival and production through maintenance of better water quality and greater abundance of zooplankton in the system. Significantly lower abundance of Aeromonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in the LF treatment considerably lowered any possibility of occurrence of bacterial disease.
|Citation:||Prithwiraj Jha, Sudip Barat, Chitta R. Nayak. Fish Production, Water Quality and Bacteriological Parameters of Koi Carp Ponds Under Live-food and Manure Based Management Regimes. Zoological Research, 2008, 29(2): 165-173. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2008.02165|