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Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in Bhutan: Current population status and conservation initiatives

Tshering Phuntsho Jigme Tshering

Tshering Phuntsho, Jigme Tshering. Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in Bhutan: Current population status and conservation initiatives. Zoological Research, 2014, 35(S1): 10-19. doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.s1.0010
Citation: Tshering Phuntsho, Jigme Tshering. Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in Bhutan: Current population status and conservation initiatives. Zoological Research, 2014, 35(S1): 10-19. doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.s1.0010

不丹的黑颈鹤:种群现状和保护

doi: 10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.s1.0010
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    Tshering Phuntsho, Jigme Tshering

  • 中图分类号: Q958.1;Q959.7

Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in Bhutan: Current population status and conservation initiatives

  • 摘要: 黑颈鹤(Grus nigricollis)在世界自然保护联盟濒危物种红色名录中被列为"易危"物种,在不丹也同样受法律保护。不丹是重要的、也是除中国之外的最大黑颈鹤越冬地。黑颈鹤在不丹的越冬期为5个月,越冬区域为不丹的中部(Phobjilka, Khotokha 和Gyetsa)和东部(Bumdeling)。不丹的黑颈鹤同步统计工作始于1986—1987年冬季,调查地点包括了最主要的几个越冬区,如不丹中部的Phobjikha和Khotokha以及东部的Bumdeling。调查工作由不丹皇家自然保护学会和林业部(现为林业和公园服务部)发起。从1986—1987冬季开始,至2013—2014冬季(共28个越冬期),同步调查 结果表明平均每年的越冬黑颈鹤数量为415只1。在1986—1987冬季,黑颈鹤数量仅为370只,但在2013—2014年冬季调查中,黑颈鹤数量已达550只,增长率高达48.6% 2。在28年中,平均每年的种群增长率为1.73%,或者说每年会增加6只黑颈鹤。在过去的两个半世纪中,不丹的黑颈鹤数量一直在稳步增加。但是除了Phobjikha山谷地区的黑颈鹤数量在逐步增长以外,其他几个地点,如Bumthang、Bumdeling 和 Khotokha的数量却在减少,尤其是在20世纪90年代初之后。整体来看,在黑颈鹤统计数量最多的那一年,共550只,幼鹤数量为63只,幼体新增率为11.4%。最引人注目的保护工作是Phobjikha和 Bumdeling两地均已晋升为保护地,其中Phobjikha为保护区,而Bumdeling falls(位于Bumdeling野生动物庇护所)则成为了国际重要湿地。Khotokha和Bumdeling一样,也在2012年成为了国际重要湿地。在Bumthang地区的 Thangbi falls(位于 Ugyen Wangchuck Centennial Park ),黑颈鹤同样受到了有效保护。在这些地区,黑颈鹤受到的主要威胁是人类经济发展导致的对自然环境的破坏。今后的保护计划主要包括生境恢复、生境和捕猎研究、宣教项目、环志研究等。"可持续民生发展项目"也已在Phobjikha和Bumdeling实施,其中在Phobjikha的项目尤其备受关注。在法律层面上,针对黑颈鹤的保护政策日趋完善,而在社会文化中,民众一直视黑颈鹤为"LhaBja",即"天堂之鸟",这些均保证了黑颈鹤会得到最好的保护。
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  • 收稿日期:  2014-12-01
  • 修回日期:  2014-12-15
  • 刊出日期:  2014-12-08

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